Jason J. Gullickson

Jason J. Gullickson

JSFS Freeloading

I’ve been thinking more about the conversations Preston and I have had about freeloading (mostly due to having conversations with people who are against it) and in particular the idea that freeloading is necessary to achieve reasonable levels of efficiency in robust or redundant systems. This morning a very concrete, practical application of this principle came to mind.


JSFS is a REST/HTTP-based file storage system I’ve been working on.  JSFS provides block-level deduplication of the files it stores, which means that each file gets cut up into pieces and only unique pieces consume disk space. I plan to write a lot more about JSFS soon, but I’m holding off until the next release is ready.

JSFS Freeloading

As the number of unique blocks stored increases, so does the likelihood that the next stored file will contain a block that has already been stored.  Based on this, it is at least conceivable that some new files will be composed exclusively of existing blocks and therefore consume no storage at all* in JSFS.  What I propose, is an extension to JSFS that makes determining this state user-accessible and that any commercial JSFS store allow files like this to be stored at no cost.

It might seem unlikely that this could actually occur (a file composed completely of pre-existing blocks) but in practice it is not uncommon depending on the nature of what is being stored.  If JSFS is used to store a lot of small original works from say, a blog author, then this scenario is less likely.  If it is used to store large media files, and in particular things like collections of music or video for many different users, it is actually quite likely that that duplicate blocks exist, and in some cases complete identical files (differing only in their name or namespace) are stored as well, in which case it’s obvious that additional copies of these files will require zero additional storage.

There are other aspects about how JSFS works that will further increase the likelihood of a no-unique-blocks file scenario, but I’ll leave elaborating on that that for a later post.

Considering this, it’s not hard to imagine a large commercial JSFS system that would potentially “generate” a large amount of this “free” storage that would potentially go unused.  Like waste heat from a power plant, if this can be captured and used for useful work it pushes the system to otherwise unobtainable levels of efficiency.  If the SLA’s for this “free” storage are established and managed correctly, any impact on the “primary” applications can be minimized or eliminated while empowering users who might otherwise be unable to afford un-subsidized storage (or avoid the exploitation that comes with subsidized storage).

  • some resources are consumed to relate the existing blocks to the new file, and of course some resources are required to retrieve the stored file, but these are orders of magnitude less costly than the disk storage that would be required to store the data in a traditional filesystem.


- Jason

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